Project Summary-Kalahasti Abhishek

NEAR DEATH EXPERIENCE

Near death experience :

personal experience associated with impending death, encompassing multiple possible sensations including detachment from the body, feelings of levitation, total serenity, security etc.

What happens :

It is observed that during this process you will be get separated from your body and you can see your body as if you are a spectator. It is even observed that you will be attracted to some bright light. BUT ALL THESE DOESN’T HAVE ANY SCIENTIFIC PROOF 😦

So there is no proof for the out of body experience, but as we know the work of scientists is to make hypothesis and try to prove them.

Hypothesis :

  • Scientists assumed that Consciousness resides in the microtubules of the brain cells, which are the primary sites of quantum processing.
  • Our experience of consciousness is the result of quantum gravity effects in these microtubules.

For example :

When a person is declared dead(heart stopped working) ,

  • the microtubules lose their quantum state.
  • The quantum information within the microtubules is not destroyed, it can’t be destroyed, it just distributes and dissipates to the universe at large.
  • If the patient is resuscitated, revived, this quantum information can go back into the microtubules and the patient says “I had a near death experience”.

They assumed this to be actual concept behind NDE but there is no scientific proof for it.

USES :

After all what is the use of experimenting and studying NDE ?

First answer is that the topic is quite interesting. But can you find some useful ways in relating it with current medical scenario ?

Yes, of course NDE brings us to a situation of changing the actual definition of death. This is because, even after our heart stops beating, there will be a RAPID INCREASE IN OUR BRAIN ACTIVITY for next 30 seconds and we have seen cases where person came back after being declared dead.

So how it can be used ?

From this concept we can say that brain can be made to function irrespective of functioning of the heart for some time. This can be used Heart transplantation where we have seen cases that person died because of brain failure during transplantation. This can be made possible if technology develops a lot. Let’s hope that it happens and if it does, it will be surely revolutionize the medical field.

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Project Summary-Sumit and Arindam

Golden Ratio
Topic:Effect of Golden Ratio on our perception of beauty in case of human faces.

Golden Ratio :
In mathematics, when two quantities are in same ratio as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two
quantities i.e. if ‘a’ is greater than ‘b’ then, ‘a+b’ to ‘a’ equals ‘a’ to ‘b’.

Golden Ratio In Nature :
It is known that the golden ratio manifests itself in abundance in nature.
From petals of flowers to veins of leaves to insect hives to crystals to animal skeletons , we encounter golden ratio everywhere .

Golden Ratio :Earlier Studies
Studies by psychologists, starting with Fechner, have been devised to test the idea that the golden ratio plays a role in human perception of beauty.

In this project we tried to verify it .

We decided to verify the validity of the aforementioned hypothesis by doing a wide scale web-survey of (not so popular) actresses.
The students would rate the faces on a scale of 1-5.
Later we compare various ratios found in a face with the golden ratio and try to reach a conclusion.

The Web Survey:
In the web survey we are presented with faces of all the actresses in order while we rate it on a scale of 1-5.
The code for the survey was written by us using php , mysql , html , css and javascript.
The result is a general survey website capable of suppoting many large kinds of surveys.

For our survey, we decided to use some common prevelant ratios of various dimensions of the face.
They are:-
1)Eyes to nose flair to nose base
2)Eyes to nostril top to center of lips
3)Eyes to nose base to bottom of lips
4)Eyes to center of lips to bottom of lips
5)Nose flair to bottom of lips to bottom of chin
6)Nose flair to top of lips to bottom of chin
7)Arc of eyebrows to top of lips to bottom of chin
8)Side of face to center of face to outside opposite face
Conclusion:
The conclusion was interesting. Any face we deem beautiful may or may not conform to the golden ratio.
However, every person with the face ratios close to the golden ratio is always perceived as beautiful.
That is we find certain beauty in faces that conform to the golden ratio.

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Project Summary-Piyush

Are you frustated of your wifi speed ?
or
You might not be able to talk to your loved ones properly due to “Network Error”?

What if i tell you that you can have a network with a precision 1000 times greater than that of a surgeon and speed 2000 times greater than that of the fastest animal.
Surprised Huh! ,

Neurons in human body form a communicating channel between the brain and the body parts, what if they made up the channel between your router and laptop.
Difficult to imagine? , Let me help :-
-> The wires across a workplace connect your system with others, the same is done by the neurons connecting the inside of our body.
-> Since the data is given out in digital form , a lot of bandwidth and energy is wasted to send the parity(the error checking bits, acknowledgement bits) along
with the data.
-> Our neurons communicate in analog form
i) No noisy signals generated.
ii) No parity data are send in the body.
iii)Our reflex actions convey all about the speed.

So, i would like to propose a quasi-perfect system which could change the way we see the networking system and their concepts.

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Project Summary-Karan Jakhar

HS 241 Psychology

Project Summary

Submitted By: Karan Jakhar 1301ME21

Topic : Brain Analysing Lazy Device (BALD)

Always dreamed of getting things done by mere thought, now this can be done by Brain Analysing Lazy Device (BALD). Working on the principles of Electroencephalography (EEG) i.e. recording of electrical activity along the scalp, measuring the voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flowing within the neurons of the brain. Every emotion, physical work to senses produce a specific voltage fluctuation in the specific part of the brain. Now BALD will take these signal as a trigger mechanism to perform certain task from switching on TV to driving a car. Now you don’t have to get up switch off the fan when you feel cold. It has its limitation though, everything that we are want BALD to trigger needs to be connected to it, which is not so easy in present scenario. Also the EEG devices are a bit bulky for a daily use so scope of improvement is indeed there.

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Project Summary-Brij Saxena And Kuntal Das

EYE – A Window to the soul

INTRODUCTION:

Visible indication of mental work has always been a promising topic in the field of research for the psychologists. In an article in Scientific American, the psychologist Eckhard Hess has described the pupil of the eye as the window to the soul. In his article, Hess has described that how the variations in the size of pupil give indication of the mental work that the person is doing.

Pupils react not only to the changes of intensity of the light (pupillary light reflex) but also in reaction to arousal or emotions. For example Hess and Polt (1960) presented pictures of semi-naked adults and babies to adults (four men and two women). Pupils of both sexes dilated after seeing pictures of people of the opposite sex, but in females the difference in pupillary sizes occurred also after seeing pictures of babies, as well as mothers with babies. The scope of research in this topic has given rise to the subject of “cognitive pupillometry”.

EXTERNAL VIEW OF AN EYE:

How Variation In The Size Of Pupil Gives Indication Of Mental Work:

Pupils are sensitive indicators of mental effort. They dilate substantially when people do mental work like multiply two digit numbers, and they dilate more if the problems are hard than if they are easy.

With changing demands of the task, the size of the pupil varies second by second. The effort builds as our focus increases on the task, reaches its peak value and gradually decreases when we complete the task or we give up. Corresponding to this the size of the pupil gives an inverted ‘V’ graph. It shows that with increasing mental work the size of the pupil goes on increasing and it gradually shrinks when the task is over.

Different tasks require different level of mental work-

  • The mundane conversation demands little or no effort. The pupil remains small and do not noticeably dilate.

  • During the tasks which require high level of mental work such as multiplying a three digit number to a two digit number the size of the pupil can increase as much as 50% of the normal size.

  • When the given task is too tough for the person to perform, the size of the pupil shrinks as the mind decides to give up.

Experiment:

  • We performed our experiment on three people.

  • We took snapshots of their eye which depicted the variation in the size of their pupil during the course of the experiment.

  • The task given to the subject was that we gave them four digit numbers at intervals of 6 seconds. The subject has to answer after incrementing each digit of that number by 3, before the new number is announced.

  • Another task that was given was to mentally calculate the product of two two-digit numbers.

CONCLUSION:

During the course of the experiment we observed remarkable variations in the pupil size. When the subjects were performing the tasks, the size of their pupil increased gradually, though there were many variations in the size. When the given task was over and the subjects were asked to relax, the size of their pupil gradually reduced to the normal size. Although the experiment was not performed in perfectly ideal setup but from the analysis of the collected data we can safely conclude that variations in the size of pupil indicate the level of mental work

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Project Summary-Joydeb And Uppu Sai Teja

Lucid Dreaming

By Joydeb Mandal and Uppu Sai Teja

WHAT IS LUCID DREAMING?

  • A lucid dream is any dream in which one is aware that one is dreaming.

  • Even though the term “lucid” means clear, lucid dreaming is more than just having a clear dream. To have a lucid dream you must know that it’s a dream while you’re dreaming.

  • Lucid dreaming is awareness that you are dreaming.

  • This awareness can range from very faint recognition of the fact to something as momentous as a broadening of awareness beyond what has ever been experienced even in waking life.

What you can Experience??

  • Lucid Dreaming is the scientifically proven ability to become conscious while dreaming – to “wake up” and take active control of your dreams.

  • In this heightened mental state you can:

  • Explore your dream world with total clarity, where everything you see, hear, touch, taste and smell can be as authentic as reality.

  • Fulfil any fantasy like flying, base jumping, time traveling, free falling, meeting aliens, and visiting other worlds.

  • Overcome personal issues like fears, phobias, anxieties, nightmares, past traumas and recurring dreams.

  • Tap into your creative genius by creating music, seeking artistic imagery and conversing with your dreaming inner self.

Lucid Dreaming Machines

  • Ever since lucid dreaming entered the public eye in the 1980s, there have been many attempts to create the ultimate lucid dream machine.

  • The idea is to make lucid dreaming as easy as possible – so that anyone can do it at will.

  • The most popular type of lucid dreaming device is an eye mask which emits visual and audio cues to the would-be lucid dreamer while they are asleep.

  • Often this means you see flashing lights in your dreamscape, which remind you that you are dreaming. Some offer audio cues as well.

The NovaDreamer

  • The NovaDreamer lucid dream mask works by detecting Rapid Eye Movement (REM) while you are asleep and dreaming.

  • The mask then flashes a series of lights through your closed eyelids; a stimulus which becomes incorporated into your dream.

The RemDreamer

  • It is similar in design and function to NovaDreamer.

  • Like most lucid dreaming devices, it uses infra-red sensors to detect when you are in REM sleep.

  • It then produces sound and light cues which are incorporated into your dream and help you become lucid.

  • You may interpret these dream signs as sunlight, camera flashes, car headlights or many other types of stimulus.

The RemeeDreamer

  • Remee is a sleep mask designed to help increase the frequency of your Lucid Dreams

  • Using low profile electronics hidden in a comfortable sleep mask, Remee supplies customizable light patterns that your dreaming mind can recognize, allowing you to take control.

  • Remee’s six LEDs serve as your touchstone to the waking world
    You can personalize your dream signal to create a combination of pattern, timing, and brightness that is unique to your sleep style.

Precautions

  • If you lucid dream, remember to make it a great experience, and do not be disappointed when you wake up.

  • Remember if you get very excited during your lucid dream, it might cause you to wake up suddenly. At this point, focus on your dream, rub your hands, or spin around and concentrate.

Conclusion

  • As most serious lucid dreamers will agree: a sleep mask is an important lucidity aid to have handy in your bedroom.

  • Lucid dreaming helps us improve many things, such as improving problem solving skills, improving creativity, facing our fears, improving confidence and learning new skills.


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Project Summary-Hypnotism

-K.Sai Sumanth 1301CH16

-Ch.Vishal 1301ME15

Hypnotism

  • Hypnosis is a psychological state with physiological attributes superficially resembling sleep and marked by a level of awareness different to the ordinary conscious state. Another description of the phenomenon is that of an altered mental state, while another links it to imaginative role-enactment.
  • Technical meaning :Hypnosis – coming from the Greek word ‘Hypnos’ (meaning sleep) was so-called because while in the state of Hypnosis, a person is very, very relaxed

Where hypnosis??

  • It talks about the history of hypnosis
  • There is a great deal of evidence to support the belief that Hypnosis was being used by the Ancient Greeks and Romans – for therapeutic benefit – as far back as about the fourth Century BC. 
  • Ancient Egyptians used hypnosis in their dream temples. Some ancient Egyptian paintings depict an apparently sleeping person with others who seem to be making hypnotic passes over them. Perhaps the best source of reference to hypnosis in early Egypt comes from the famous 3rd century CE Demotic Magical Papyrus which was discovered in the 19th century in Thebes

How can hypnosis help??

  • 1 Hypnosis can treat addictions

Hypnosis can help you lose weight and keep it off .

Hypnosis can help manage chronic pain. 

Hypnosis can help reduce stress.

Hypnosis can help deal with childhood issues. Hypnosis can promote deep relaxation

Hypnosis can help recover buried memories 

Hypnosis can help treat Anxiety and Depression

Bad part of hypnosis

  • 1. Issues often take several sessions, or half a dozen sessions to shift, and some clients unreasonably imagine that a single session will ‘fix them’. (they aren’t broken, anyway) 
  • 2. There is no massive shock to the system, for an issue to easily resolve — this can lead the client to sometimes think it did not help, because it’s so natural and comfortable. The change is what they want, made by their own mind. Feels totally normal. Is normal. 

How to perform hypnotism

1. First, you will need to get your subject relaxed. Have them lie down (or sit very comfortably) and tell them to let all of the tension drain out of them. Tell them they weight one thousand pounds. Do whatever it takes to get them really, really relaxed.

  • 2. Next, you need to induct your subject. This is done by having them daydream to relax their minds so that they are receptive to what you say. You will need to ad-lib this part. Tell them to imagine they are in a place, and slowly build sensory detail until you think they really feel like they are in that place. For example, on a beach you might say, “Look down at your feet. Feel and see the sand between your toes. Smell the salty air and hear the screeching of the gulls.” After a while tell them to let the image go.
  • 3. Have them go through memories from the past few days, re-living them completely. This is a particularly effective method. Let them do it for themselves and just wait quietly. Tell them to let that image go.
  • 4. Tell them to imagine an object of food. Have them feel it, smell it, and see it. Tantalize them with smells but don’t let them eat it. Then tell them that they can eat it, and to savor each bite. At this point if the subject has been hypnotized well they may appear to be chewing and licking their lips.
  • 5.After the previous steps they should look very relaxed. Their breathing should be deep and even. They should not be fidgeting or tensing any muscles. Check if they meet these requirements. If they don’t, repeat any of the last three steps. If they do, move on. If you aren’t sure, tell them to picture a ruler in their mind, and let one be totally awake and twelve be nearly asleep, and ask them to tell you quietly what number they are. If they are lower than eight or nine repeat the steps.
  • Once the subject trusts you completely, tell them that they will not come out of hypnosis, but they will sit up very slowly. Some subjects may take very slowly quite literally, so be patient. Once they do, if you want them to stand up you can have them do that too.
  • The best way to get them to do funny things is to have them act out a story that you tell them. For example, if you want them to try to fly, you could say that they are walking down the street and they see an evil wizard who turns them into a bird, and that they have to fly away from the wizard.
  • Have fun! Be creative with what you tell them is happening. After you are done, tell them to lie back down and that they will remember the outside world and slowly stretch and wake up. They may or may not remember what they did. It’s even funnier when they don’t!

All we want to say is that hypnotism is not very well understood

It is still a mystery unresolved…!!!

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